Food mainly consists of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, fiber, micronutrients and water.
Carbohydrates are found in nature as monosaccharides (simple), disaccharides and polysaccharides such as starch. Only simple sugars can be absorbed into the blood. The body must break down disaccharides and polysaccharides from bread, potatoes, rice and pasta during digestion. Therefore, they have a higher degree of saturation. Carbohydrates are mostly sources of energy.
Fats (lipids) are triglycerides and cholesterol found in food and metabolism. They help the body absorb the essential vitamins A, D, E and K. They also supply the body with energy. The fatty acids that make up lipids can be saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Some polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential for life and should be taken with food, such as linoleic acid from sunflower oil.
Proteins are mainly used as a building material for cells. Therefore, children need larger amounts than adults. Lack of protein can lead to a weakening of the immune system or a decline in physical and mental abilities. Daily protein needs should be met primarily by plant proteins.
Fiber is an indigestible nutrient component that speeds up the digestive process by increasing the volume and therefore has a saturating effect. Wholemeal flour, beans and prunes are high in fiber. Foods high in fiber allow the body to absorb essential nutrients. They prevent tooth decay and have a cholesterol-lowering effect.
Vitamins are organic micronutrients that are essential for many metabolic processes in the body. They are ingested with food. All lipophilic and hydrophilic vitamins have very specific functions and are indispensable.
Inorganic micronutrients are minerals that the body needs as bulk and trace elements. They are just as important for building cells, tissue, bones and teeth as they are for metabolism. A lack of these vital elements always announces itself in physical and mental exhaustion.
50-60% of the human body is made up of water. The body needs it as a solvent and transport medium in the blood, lymph fluid, digestive juices and muscles. In order to maintain their digestion functions, at least 2 liters of liquid should be consumed daily.