The accumulation of fat, blood clots, connective tissue and calcium in the blood vessels causes the arteries to harden. This is known as atherosclerosis and causes cardiovascular disease, i.e. diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Circulatory problems, high and fluctuating blood pressure and pain in the chest and upper arms, and in women also in the neck and jaw, are usually signs of cardiovascular disease. In many cases, the affected person does not notice any noticeable symptoms and almost suddenly gets a heart attack or stroke.
From mid-life, blood counts should be checked regularly to prevent disease and its consequences.
The risk of disease increases significantly in the case of high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. The effects of smoking should not be underestimated and are being studied in detail today. However, the extent of the influence of stress or other psycho-emotional factors is not fully understood. Lack of exercise and obesity are definitely among the causes of cardiovascular disease. Diabetics are particularly susceptible.
The cholesterol level must also be checked carefully. HDL cholesterol regulates the removal of harmful substances from the vessels. Thus balances out the LDL cholesterol, that deposits on the vessel walls that can lead to atherosclerosis. HDL cholesterol is therefore often referred to as good cholesterol and LDL cholesterol as bad. Equally harmful are triglycerides in high concentrations.
If the ratio of LDL and HDL cholesterol is not correct and triglyceride levels are too high, the risk of cardiovascular disease increases. Therefore, HDL cholesterol should not be below 50 mg / dl or 1.3 mmol / l in women and not less than 40 mg / dl or 1.0 mmol / l in men. The concentration of triglycerides in the blood, on the other hand, should not exceed 150 mg / dl or 1.7 mmol / l.
The most effective prevention of cardiovascular disease is a healthy lifestyle. Food that is as fresh and high in fiber as possible should be the basis of the diet.
LDL cholesterol from meat, sausages and other animal products should be avoided to prevent obesity and fat accumulation. At the same time, however, the supply of fat-soluble vitamins and trace elements should not be neglected.
Sufficient and regular exercise is especially important. Sport is an effective measure to prevent heart attack and stroke.